????Shenzhen is a coastal city in southern China. Its longitude is between 113.46 and 114.37 degrees east, and its latitude is between 22.27 and 22.52 degrees north. It is in the south of Guangdong Province and south of the Tropic of Cancer. Demarcated from Hong Kong by Shenzhen River to the south, it is bordered by Dongguan and Huizhou to the north, Daya Bay to the east and Lingding Sea and the mouth of the Pearl River to the west.
????Shenzhen has a mild, subtropical maritime climate with plenty of rain and sunshine. Summer is as long as 6 months. The annual average temperature is 23.7℃, with the highest temperature reaching 36.6℃ and the lowest 1.4℃. The frost-free period can be as long as 355 days a year, with sunshine time being 1,975 hours a year; solar radiation 5,225 trillion joule per square meter; and relative humidity 72.3 percent. The rainy season lasts from May to September, with an annual average rainfall of 1,608.1 mm and occasional typhoons in summer and autumn.
????Land and Natural Resources
????The total area of Shenzhen is 1,952.84 square kilometers and the size of the Special Economic Zone, 395.81 square kilometers. The city is rich in fruits like litchi, and its major mineral resources include graphite and marble. The city, however, lacks metal resources and relies upon imports for oil and gas.
????Shenzhen is mainly undulating with the occasional plain. Land elevation declines from the southeast to the northwest. The western part of Shenzhen comprises coastal plains. Plains account for 22.1 percent of the city's total area. Wutong Mountain, with an altitude of 943.7m, is the city's highest peak.
????Seas and Mountains
????The coastline of the city is 229.96 kilometers long. Deep-water ports have been built at various locations in the city. Total sea area of the city is about 800 square kilometers (350 belong to Lingding Sea, 290 belong to Daya Bay and 150 belong to Dapeng Bay). The city boasts more than 40 kinds of maritime products. Famous mountains include Wutong, with an altitude of 943.7m, is the city's highest peak. Qiniang and Yangtai. In the east lie the popular beach resorts of Dameisha, Xiaomeisha and Dapeng Bay. To the west lies Inner Lingding Island, a nature reserve and a water resort.
????There are more than 160 rivers and streams in the city, but only five of them have drainage areas larger than 100 square kilometers. They are Shenzhen River, Maozhou River, Longgang River, Guanlan River and Pingshan River. There are 24 reservoirs in Shenzhen, with a total volume of 525 million cubic meters. The annual average volume of usable underground water is 650 million cubic meters. Shenzhen Reservoir to the east of the urban district has a total volume of more than 40 million cubic meters. It is the main source of water for Shenzhen and Hong Kong. The city's fresh water resources are 1.93 billion cubic meters, and water consumption is only 500 square meters a year per capita, accounting for one-third of the nation's average and a quarter of Guangdong Province's average.